TURKISH ALPHABET AND KEY TO PRONUNCIATION

There are 29 letters in the new Turkish Alphabet 8 of which are vowels (a,e,ı,i,o,ö,u, u) and the remaining- 21 are consonants.

Characters Equivalents and exaples (nearly)

Türkçe 

Русский

English

عربیة-فارسی

A       a    

а

arbor

 ا،آ،ع،(فتح)  аdab“آداب” ahkam“احکام”

B       b      

б

bed

 ب bustan “بوستان” beyan “بیان”

C       c 

дж

jar

 ج cami “جامع” nücum “نجوم” Celal “جلال”

Ç       ç  

ч

cheese

 چ  koçi “قوچی” çare “چاره”

D       d  

д

dog

 د،ض، divan “دیوان” dastan “داستان” devlet “دولت”

E       e    

э

fetch

  اَ،ه،sene “سنه” emsile “امثله; el-Kitab “الکتاب”:

F       f   

ф

fog

 ف feraiz “فرائز” fetava “فتاوا”

G       g  

г

get

 گ،غ gencine “گنجینه” lugat “لغت”

Ğ       ğ   

(г)

weight

گ،غdağ “داغ”, değil “دگیل”

H       h     

х

hat

 ح،خ،ه   haşiye “حاشیه” Hasan “حسن”hayr “”

I        ı     

ы

oven

 اِ،ع،ی    ıstılah “اصطلاح” kız “قز”

İ        i     

и

see

 ای،ی،ع  ilim “علم”, din-i islam “دینِ اسلام”

J        j     

ж

treasure

ژ   jale “ژاله”

K       k   

к

cure

 ک،ق     Kur’an “قرآن” kitab “کتاب”

L        l    

л

list

  ل   lugat “لغت” lehçe “dialect”

M       m   

м

man

 م  manzume “منظومه” mecmu’a “مجموعه”

N       n    

н

no

 ن    name “نامه” Niyazi “نیازی”

O       o   

о

ornament

 او،اُ،ع  osmanlı “عثمانلی” oğlu “اوغلو”

Ö      ö    

-

bird

 او،اُ    dört “دورت” söz “سوز”

P       p   

п

put

پ  pend-name “پندنامه”

R       r    

р

mirrow

ر   risale “رساله” rahat “داحت”

S       s   

с

set

  ث،س،ص siyer “سیر” suret “صورت” Selma “سلمی”

Ş       ş   

ш

shape

 ش  şerh “شرح” şair “شاعر”

T       t     

т

take

        ت،ط   tercemet’ül-Kur’an “القرآن ترجمة” tefsir “تفسیر” tarik “طریق”

U       u   

у

stew

او،ع،اُ ulum “علوم” usulu’l-hikem “اصول الحکم” 

Ü       ü    

-

cubic

اُ،او    üns “انس” hüseyin “حسین”

V       v   

в

very

و     vasiyet “وصیت” Vikaye “وقایه”

Y       y    

й

yet

ی   eyyam “ایام” Yahya “یحیی”

Z       z     

з

zeal

 ذ،ز،ظ،ض   ziya “ضیا” zeyl “زیل” nazım “نظم”

 

Notes:
In Turkish every letter (vowel or consonant) has absolutely a single sound which is always pronounced separately and distinctly. There are neither diphthong nor reduplicated or compound letters. Thus, (ch, gh, ph, sh, th) are pronounced everywhere and without exception as two distinct letters with their original and individual alphabetic sounds, like (c-h, g-h, p-h, s-h, t-h)

The sign of prolongation or the circumflex (^) on the vowels (a, i, u) makes
them either long vowels.